Open edX DevStack: A Toolkit for the Fut …
Open edX DevStack: A Toolkit for the Fut …
Open edX DevStack: A Toolkit for the Future of Learning Software

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This article was written by team member Fox Piacenti.

If you’ve had the opportunity to take a course on, you might wonder how you can contribute to the Open edX platform. The Open edX project is massive – involving many interdependent pieces working together. Deploying the Open edX platform takes a great deal of expertise. However, you can run your own copy for development easily with the “DevStack.” The DevStack sets up all the major components of an Open edX installation and gives you the tools to make your own contributions to Open edX.

Getting Started

Following the DevStack repository’s README results in a working copy of Open edX. Curiously, it creates the repositories not in the DevStack directory, but the one above it:

    fox@masamune[~/projects/openedx/devstack] (master)$ ll ../
    total 0
    drwxr-xr-x  19 fox   admin   608 Oct 24 13:33 ./
    drwxrwxr-x  28 root  admin   896 Oct 24 13:29 ../
    drwxr-xr-x  44 fox   admin  1408 Oct 24 13:30 course-discovery/
    drwxr-xr-x  40 fox   admin  1280 Oct 24 13:30 credentials/
    drwxr-xr-x  30 fox   admin   960 Oct 24 13:30 cs_comments_service/
    drwxr-xr-x  69 fox   admin  2208 Oct 24 13:30 devstack/
    drwxr-xr-x  36 fox   admin  1152 Oct 24 13:30 ecommerce/
    drwxr-xr-x  26 fox   admin   832 Oct 24 13:33 edx-analytics-pipeline/
    drwxr-xr-x  25 fox   admin   800 Oct 24 13:30 edx-e2e-tests/
    drwxr-xr-x  26 fox   admin   832 Oct 24 13:31 edx-notes-api/
    drwxr-xr-x  61 fox   admin  1952 Oct 24 13:33 edx-platform/
    drwxr-xr-x  25 fox   admin   800 Oct 24 13:33 frontend-app-course-authoring/
    drwxr-xr-x  23 fox   admin   736 Oct 24 13:33 frontend-app-gradebook/
    drwxr-xr-x  25 fox   admin   800 Oct 24 13:33 frontend-app-learning/
    drwxr-xr-x  25 fox   admin   800 Oct 24 13:33 frontend-app-library-authoring/
    drwxr-xr-x  27 fox   admin   864 Oct 24 13:33 frontend-app-program-console/
    drwxr-xr-x  27 fox   admin   864 Oct 24 13:33 frontend-app-publisher/
    drwxr-xr-x  29 fox   admin   928 Oct 24 13:33 registrar/
    drwxr-xr-x  22 fox   admin   704 Oct 24 13:33 xqueue/

This allows the DevStack to act as one repository among the whole group. However, this may cause a problem if you weren’t expecting to create directories in your parent directory. So we recommend you create a project directory and then clone the DevStack there, so that you can keep your work area clean.

Finding your Bearings

Each of the directories contains its own project. For example, edx-platform is the Studio and the Learning Management System (LMS). They share a lot of code and so work as one project together. In another example, cs_comments_service is the forum backend - it handles the course discussions. There is one directory, other than devstack which is a bit special, and that's edx-theme. This directory is where you'd place any themes you wish to install.

Each project runs in its own Docker container, orchestrated by Docker Compose. Docker Compose puts all of the DevStack containers together on a virtual network, with ports exposed to your machine. For instance, you can visit Studio by opening your browser and going to http://localhost:18010, or to http://localhost:18000 for the LMS. Note that the LMS takes considerably longer to start up, and may not be running for up to a minute after you start the Open edX DevStack.

One quirk here is that the LMS and the Studio each have their own docker container, but they both load their code from the edx-platform repository. Don't forget updating that Studio's code also updates the LMS.

For most of this article, we will focus on the LMS and Studio, as they are the most commonly worked on projects in the DevStack.

Updating the LMS and Studio

A screenshot of the LMS running on a local devstack.

The majority of the work done on the DevStack involves edx-platform in some way - and thus the LMS and Studio containers are involved. If you switch branches, you must update your Python requirements and your database.

Let’s say you want to pull the latest changes from master. You go into the edx-platform repository and then pull:

    $ git pull
     * branch                  master     -> FETCH_HEAD
    Updating 6f69fd7dc2..8cef028429

The updated code likely has changed the dependencies. Switch back to the devstack repository:

    cd ../devstack

Then, enter the LMS.

    make lms-shell

Once inside, we want to run:

    paver install_prereqs

This will download and install all of the Python and Javascript libraries needed to run the LMS. After installing the dependencies, update the database:

    paver update_db

Once the database is updated, start the process over again with Studio. Exit the shell with ctrl+D or:


And then enter the Studio shell with:

    make studio-shell

You can then run the same paver commands as before. Your LMS and Studio should now be ready!

Working with Static/Frontend Assets

By default, Studio and LMS will automatically reload and handle any changes you make to their Python files within a few seconds. However, it does not automatically update Javascript and other frontend assets. Thankfully, there is a way to watch and automatically update those files just like the Python ones. We’ll use the LMS as the example. From the devstack directory:

    make lms-shell

Once inside, run:

    paver watch_assets
A screenshot of generated, minified Javascript code.
Image courtesy Markus Spiske of Unsplash

The frontend files will then be built and will watch for any changes, automatically rebuilding when they are found.

Running Tests

Any changes you make to the platform’s logic should always be verified with new tests. Likewise, you should run existing tests to verify you’ve not broken anything with your updates. To run unit tests, once more enter the shell of the system you wish to test from the devstack repository:

    make lms-shell

To run every test imaginable (we don’t recommend this unless you have a lot of time on your hands):

    paver test

If you wish to run all Python unit tests:

    paver test_python

To run all Javascript tests:

    paver test_js
A screenshot showing some of the JS test output

To run specific Python unit tests:

    paver test_system -s lms -t path/to/file

...where path/to/file is a path to a file or directory that contains tests you want to run. Note that you should use -s cms instead of -s lms for studio unit tests. Code that's in common between the two projects should be able to use either flag.

Other Commands

Photograph of a pair of glasses sitting atop a laptop, focusing the code editing utilities on screen through the lenses.
You are encouraged to whisper "I'm in" in your best 90s hacker movie voice every time you enter an Open edX devstack shell. Photo by Kevin Ku on Unsplash

You may have noticed that the paver command is used to perform several actions. Well, we’ve only scratched the surface of what it can do. Most of the commands that we haven’t covered won’t be useful to the average developer, but may come in handy from time to time. You can get a full listing of all commands paver supports by running:

    paver --help

One thing that paver does NOT do is run the Django shell for you. You are likely aware that the LMS and Studio are very complex Django projects. Django comes with a REPL that allows you to run code directly. This makes it easy to look up database information without using SQL, for instance. You can perform any number of tasks with the full power of a contextualized Python shell.

To run the LMS Django shell, from within the LMS container, run:

    ./ lms shell

Keen eyes will notice that this is almost the normal Django shell command. However, for all management commands in edx-platform, you must specify either lms or cms, since they both initialize different environments.

In fact, many other Django management commands are available. Most of the useful ones are invoked by paver as required, but you can list them directly like so:

    ./ lms

This will list all commands, which you can then investigate further. For instance, to get help for the migrate command, run:

    ./ lms migrate --help

Wrapping Up

Getting oriented around the Open edX DevStack can be overwhelming at times, but with a handful of commands you can make your way around the project and contribute your own code to the Open edX platform.

Of course, if you like, you can always call upon us to assist you with Open edX projects. Come drop us a line and let us know what you’re interested in doing. We’ll let you know how we can help!

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